Irish and Scottish king lists and chronologies





GENERAL NOTES: This research paper has been based on the Leabhar Gabhala or Lebor Gabala [The Book of Conquests], the Annals of the Four Masters, the Annals of Clonmacnois, Roderico O’Flaherty’s Ogygia, Geoffrey Keating’s Foras Feasa Ar Éirinn or General History of Ireland, John of Fordun’s Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, Volume II, The Irish Version of Nennius: of the Historia Britonum of Nennius, The Annals of Inisfallen, the Annals of Ulster, the works of Raphael Holinshead (or Hollinshead), the works of Edmund Campion and Meredith Hanmer in Sir James Ware, and the Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores (in four volumes, 1814 and 1825), and “The Ancestry of Fénius Farsaid” by John Carey in Celtica 21 (1990, published by the Institute for Advanced Studies). Some modern works have also been consulted. For example, Thomas F. O’Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology (Dublin: The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946). Mr. O’Rahilly rejects most the early Irish history as complete fiction without any historical value. However, he considers the battle between the Fir Bolgs and the Tuatha De Danann as possibly based on historical facts.




None of the regnal years of the Irish kings above are invented or estimated. Each of them is cited from one (or more) of the following six historical records or works: The Annals of Clonmacnois, The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters, Lebor [or Leabhar] Gabhala or the Book of the Conquests, the works of Geoffrey Keating, the Ogygia of Roderic O’Flaherty, and the Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores (in for volumes, 1814 and 1825).




This paper has been compiled by Zoltan Andrew Simon (66). He is a Canadian Hungarian, amateur historian, originally a land surveyor and geologist with diplomas. This paper was completed in July 2015 and updated in August 2015. The author’s address is 72 Best Crescent, Red Deer, AB, Canada T4R 1H6. The author’s email address is and his website (URL) is



The content of this paper may be utilized or published without the written permission with the author, Zoltan Andrew Simon, with the condition that his name, email address, and website shall be mentioned in citations longer than a regular paragraph.


HISTORY NOTES:             Gaidhel (Gadel, Gaythelos), a contemporary of Moses (1591-1471 BC) and Aaron. He fled from his father Nel or Niul (a lord of Athens in Greece about the time of King Cecrops) and arrived to the court of Pharaoh Amenophis a.k.a. Orus [or Horus]. See the histories of Edmund Campion and Meredith Hanmer in Sir James Ware. They gave the relevant A.M. (Anno Mundi) dates that seems to be     correct by using Bede’s starting point in 3962 BC. Gaidhel and his tribe arrived in Egypt when the Ethiopians invaded most of the country (in Year 5 of Amenophis III Orus). General Mery-Mose (Moses) defeated the Ethiopians at Ibhat or Ibhet, and married an Ethiopian princess of Meroe in 1563 BC. Josephus Flavius describes this expedition of Moses and tells that, due to the venomous                        snakes that infested that land, they used ibis birds – now extinct in Egypt – to kill the snakes. The accession of Amenophis (in 1567 BC) is well confirmed by three solar eclipses in Egypt in the regnal years 30, 34 and 37 of that Pharaoh. (Unfortunately, modern Egyptologists overlook the circumstance that those sed-festivals meant celebrations of the sun’s rebirth after eclipses. Therefore, their chronological

                          system is totally crippled: here the discrepancy is more than two centuries. Many mainstream scholars claim that Egyptian chronology

                          is accurate to a year or two in those centuries. However, a long chronology cannot be based on dead reckoning of reigns only. It must

                          be supported by astronomical observations, mainly eclipse records. For example, an identified lunar eclipse three day off a dated mutiny

                          in the 15th regnal year of Pharaoh Takeloth II has been completely ignored by Egyptologists, causing an error of decades already in those

                          later times. Thus, for comparison, our ancient Irish and Scottish chronology is much more reliable than the one of Egypt in the same

                          centuries. The Gaelic chronology has three major solar eclipses while Egyptian chronology has none in the BC period.) Similarly, the

                          proper chronological considerations (generations and astronomical dates) has been ignored for the early Jewish history, mainly for

                          ideological goals (i.e., completely discredit the Old testament as fictitious). D. Justin Schove, “Chronology of Eclipses and Comets

                           AD 1 – 1000” (1984: 327) cites a pair of eclipses – lunar and solar – regarding the eclipse of Gibeon (during the battles of Joshua):

                          “Sun standing still.” His source regarded a pair of eclipses in 1131 BC, stating, “There was no important eclipse after 1131 BC until

                          831 Aug 15…” The scholars simply ignore the pair of eclipses in December 1471 and January 1470 BC visible near Jerusalem. They took

                          place a bit more than forty years after the Exodus of 1511 BC. (The 40-years interval spent in the desert is well known from traditions.)


                          The medieval tradition and some maps of Africa depict the fights between the natives and birds at the upper course of the River Nile. It is probable that

                          the core of this strange belief has been based on the Egyptian expedition led by Moses or Merymose, utilizing ibis birds during their battles against the

                          natives. Another possibility is that Niul or Nealus, when heard the success of his son Gaidhel in Egypt, visited his son and maybe settled in Egypt.

                          Otherwise, without the presence of Neal or Niul in Egypt at a certain point of time, the European nations would not call the River Nile from him. There is

                          little or no doubt that he was the denominator of that river (i.e., the River of Nealus). The circumstance that Moses cured the snakebite of Gaidhel when

                          the latter was a young boy, say 17 years old, seems to be an historical fact and it took place in the year 1563 BC in Nubia (Soudan or Ethiopia). Scota, the

                          wife of Gaithel, must have been a daughter of Pharaoh Amenophis II (that died in 1575 BC). Thus, Scota was born in about 1578 and she was two years

                          younger that Gaidhel. Amenophis III was only a boy of about seven years old at his accession to the throne in 1567 BC. Thus, the pharaoh was more or

                          less eleven or twelve years old at the time of the Nubian expedition of Moses and Gaidhel. He could not have given his daughter to Gaidhel in those

                          decades.Gaidhel probably married a sister of Pharaoh Amenophis III (Orus) in A.M. (Year of the World) 2436 as Campion’s history tells (in Sir James Ware,

                          Volume I, 1809: page 38). Using Bede’s system with 3962 years from the world’s beginning to the birth of Jesus Christ, this would mean 1527 BC, or

                          rather 1532 BC. Meredith Hanmer gave this date as A.M. 2416 (Ware, Volume 2, 1809: 6-7). The latter may refer to 1552 BC while in our universal

                          chronology the Battle of Ibhat or Ibhet took place in Year 5 of Pharaoh Amenophis III, in 1564 BC. Thus, Gaidhel participated in that battle as a boy of

                          eighteen, he could have married the princess (Scota?) at his age of 29. The Leabhar Gabhala claims that Moses cured the snakebite of Gaithel: the boy

                          got it in 1564 BC while he was swimming in Ethiopia (or rather, the modern Soudan). He would have had difficulties with swimming in the desert during

                          the Exodus of the Israelites in 1511 BC. Our source for Edmund Campion and Meredith Hanmer was Sir James Ware (1594-1666, ed.), “Ancient Irish

                          Histories” in two volumes. Some traditions claim that Queen Scota was still alive when his nation left Egypt [in 1511 BC]. That may have been true and

                          she would have been c. sixty-seven years old in the year of the Exodus.    


                          Of course, the nation of Gaidhel parted from the Jews and migrated to Crete. The Tabrobane or Deforbani (Ceylon) route of some traditions must be a

                          wild speculation. However, the Irish-Scottish traditions recorded the name of the Pharaoh drowned in the Red See as Cenchres. No doubt that the name

                          Cenchres corresponds to Achencheres in Josephus against Apion. This Cenchres or Achencheres was the hated Akhenaten or Akhen-Aton (Akhen-Horus)

                          that ruled after Amenophis III Orus. It seems that Amenohis III, due to his illness, passed the rule to his daughter that was followed by her husband,

                          Akhenaten. The sequence of these two pharaohs in the Irish traditions, let alone the reign of 16 full years for Akhenaton-Cenchres, must be a

                          reminiscence of real historical facts and not a late invention. Hanmer, Campion, or the compilers of the Leabhar Gabhala could not have read Egyptian

                          hieroglyphs, only Eusebius, Orosius and similar historians. The Ogygia of O’Flaherty claims, “Our Writers mention the first Pharaoh to have been Pharaoh

                          Cenchres, the father-in-law of our Niul, who was immersed in the Red Sea.” We believe that Gaidhel, Niul’s son, was one or two generations older than

                          Cenchres-Akhenaten. The latter pharaoh had daughters but their ages matched that of Sru, the great-grandson of Niul.     


For Meredith Hanmer, the zero year of the world was apparently 3970 BC since he wrote in “The Chronicle of Ireland” in 1571, “the year of the world 2828 and before the birth of Christ 1142” (Ware, Volume 2, 1809: 26). A Transylvanian chronicle from the 16th century – apparently based on the

same system, written in Hungarian – is using the same starting point as 3970 BC. The Hungarian word “ír” means both “writes” and “Irish”. Also,

the earliest Hun-Hungarian chronicles claim that the ancestors of the Szekely (“Sekler” in German) nation hiding in Transylvania after the death of

Attila the Hun in AD 453 learned how to write from a nation called “Blak” living in the same region, one may assume that remnants of a “Bolg” tribe

(of Irish origin) were referred to. It is quite well known that the uncle of St Patrick was St Martin. [Bishop St. Martin was born c. 316 at Sabaria, a town in Pannonia, now called Szombathely.] Near Sabaria there is a village named “Padragkút” that means “the Well of Padraig or Patrick”. This may mean that

St Patrick, in his youth, spent some time – maybe a summer vacation – in Pannonia, near his uncle, and the local Celtic-speaking population preserved the memory of the saint there. The word “Padrag” has no meaning in Hungarian so it must have referred to a person named “Padrag” (or originally “Padraig”).